Powder Metal Valve Seats and Guides Show Clear Benefits Over Cast Materials
Federal-Mogul Powertrain PM technology on display at IAA Commercial Vehicles delivers improved corrosion resistance and higher strength
Burscheid, Germany, 16 August 2016 … New PM (powder metal) materials for valve seat inserts and valve guides from Federal-Mogul Powertrain, a division of Federal-Mogul Holdings Corporation (NASDAQ: FDML), will be showcased this September as part of the company’s engine technology portfolio at IAA Commercial Vehicles, Hanover.
Offering improved corrosion resistance, higher mechanical strength and reduced costs compared to established cast materials, the new PM materials – which are applicable primarily to on-highway, off-highway and high power density leisure marine engines – can contribute to reduced CO2emissions by enabling more efficient gas flow across the valve seat chamfers.
“The switch from cast materials to PM started decades ago in the light vehicle sector and we are now witnessing the same trend in heavy-duty engines while achieving better corrosion resistance, wear performance and great mechanical strength,” says Gian Maria Olivetti, Chief Technology Officer, Federal-Mogul Powertrain. “Currently PM materials have a market share of around 25% in heavy-duty and with widespread interest among customers, this is growing steadily.”
The benefits of PM materials derive from their structure; they do not have to be homogeneous so their phases and microstructures can be tailored to provide optimum properties in particular areas. They also enable component manufacture to net shape, reducing machining operations and making the manufacture of both finished and semi-finished parts more cost effective.
Valve Seat Inserts
Federal-Mogul FM-S20B is a new intake valve seat insert material that is highly resistant to corrosion. Road salt ingestion in developed markets and variations in fuel sulphur levels in developing regions both contribute to intake corrosion, as can condensation arising from increasing levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR).
FM-S20B uses a cost-effective ferrous base, unlike comparable cast alloys which use an expensive cobalt base. In tests during development, valve seat inserts made from FM-S20B displayed greater corrosion resistance than various grades of cast material. Current engine testing confirms claimed performance levels.
For exhaust valve seat insert applications subject to high thermal and mechanical loads, Federal-Mogul Powertrain has developed FM-S33P, an exceptionally wear resistant full-density material that combines cobalt and high speed tool steel. Available in trial production runs for prototype evaluation by heavy-duty customers, S33P has been tested successfully against cobalt-based T400 cast materials and Federal-Mogul Powertrain will undertake a test programme for application in CNG engines later this year.
The extreme load on valve seats in the heavy-duty sector has led to shallower than 45 degree seat angles, towards more wear-resistant 30, or even 20 degrees. This compromises gas flow in order to improve durability. Federal-Mogul Powertrain’s development of improved materials enables a return towards optimum seat angle, delivering both outstanding wear resistance and lower CO2emissions.
Another advantage of valve seat inserts made from PM materials is the ability to incorporate a back layer, nearest to the cylinder head, of different composition to the active layer. The back layer can comprise a variety of different materials, dependent on customer requirements: a more economical material to reduce cost, a copper-rich material to improve heat transfer, or a higher strength material to suit the modulus of cast iron heads.
Federal-Mogul Powertrain has tailored two back layer materials, FM-S60A and S60B, to suit the requirements of heavy-duty cast iron cylinder heads, each optimised for best results with a particular active layer.
Federal-Mogul Powertrain has two new PM valve guide materials market-ready, FM-G15E and G15N, for use in highly side-loaded heavy-duty engines including CNG-fuelled power generation units.
FM-G15E uses a high volume of solid lubricant captured within a specially treated Molybdenum Nickel powder metal steel microstructure to reduce friction and resist wear. It is vacuum oil impregnated to give additional tribological support and provide a combination of machinability and durability. Federal-Mogul Powertrain has characterised the machinability of G15E and can advise customers on optimum machining conditions.
For applications subject to excessively high temperatures and side loading, Federal-Mogul Powertrain has developed FM-G15N. This provides the required durability and wear resistance through the use of a chromium steel alloy matrix containing a fine distribution of solid lubricants and vacuum oil impregnation. Guides made from FM-G15N recently passed a 1,500-hour engine test, fully meeting customer requirements for both inlet and exhaust application.
Federal-Mogul Powertrain is able to apply the benefits of PM materials to engines with valve guides greater than 100 mm length, having overcome the challenges of compaction associated with such long components. Valve guides are supplied both in finished and semi-finished condition at this length, using an accurate drilling process prior to reaming for the finishing operation.
“Federal-Mogul Powertrain’s PM valve seat inserts and guides were initially developed for hot automotive gasoline applications and heavy-duty diesels but they have also proven themselves in CNG-fuelled oil field power generation units, where hot, dry conditions without the lubricity of diesel soot can lead to accelerated wear with cast components” commented Frank Zwein, Global Application Engineering Director, Valve Seats and Guides, Federal-Mogul Powertrain. “In engine trials, we have run more than 10,000 hours in this harsh environment, with low to zero measurable wear.”
Federal-Mogul Powertrain will display a range of PM valve seat inserts, guides and related products at the IAA Commercial Vehicles in Hanover, Germany, 21 – 29 September, 2016. The company will exhibit at Booth C28 in Hall 13.
Federal-Mogul Holdings Corporation (NASDAQ: FDML) is a leading global supplier of products and services to the world’s manufacturers and servicers of vehicles and equipment in the automotive, light, medium and heavy-duty commercial, marine, rail, aerospace, power generation and industrial markets. The company’s products and services enable improved fuel economy, reduced emissions and enhanced vehicle safety.
Federal-Mogul operates two independent business divisions, each with a chief executive officer reporting to Federal-Mogul's Board of Directors.
Federal-Mogul Powertrain designs and manufactures original equipment powertrain components and systems protection products for automotive, heavy-duty, industrial and transport applications.
Federal-Mogul Motorparts sells and distributes a broad portfolio of products through more than 20 of the world’s most recognized brands in the global vehicle aftermarket, while also serving original equipment vehicle manufacturers with products including braking, wipers and a range of chassis components. The company’s aftermarket brands include BERU®* ignition systems; Champion®lighting, spark plugs, wipers and filters; Interfil®filters; AE®, Fel-Pro®, FP Diesel®, Goetze®, Glyco®, Nüral®, Payen®and Sealed Power®engine products; MOOG®chassis components; and Ferodo®, Jurid®and Wagner®brake products and lighting.
Federal-Mogul was founded in Detroit in 1899 and maintains its worldwide headquarters in Southfield, Michigan. The Company has more than 53,000 employees globally. For more information, please visit www.federalmogul.com.
*BERU is a registered trademark of BorgWarner Ludwigsburg GmbH
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