"This study provides an interesting insight into the effect of blocking vitamin K activity in the body, with potential long term ramifications for bone health," said Vitamin K expert Leon J Schurgers, senior scientist from VitaK, at the Maastricht University in the Netherlands.

The major outcome of the study was that children undergoing long-term oral anticoagulant therapy presented higher levels of inactive osteocalcin, indicative of poor vitamin K status. Moreover, bone resorption markers were enhanced whereas bone formation markers and vitamin D level were lower in comparison to the control group. Additionally, more than half of the examined children in the patients group showed signs of osteopenia, which means their bone mineral density was lower than normal.

Oral anticoagulants, which inhibit vitamin K recycling, thereby create vitamin K-deficiency. As a result, this will lead to impaired carboxylation of osteocalcin, a vitamin K-dependent bone protein. As osteocalcin is fully dependent upon vitamin K to function optimally, long-term deficiency may lead to reduced bone density and quality of bone.

Results from the study of Avgeri et al. confirm previous findings that bone mineral density was significantly lower in adult stroke patients using long-term warfarin treatment compared to untreated patients. In this study osteopenia was ascribed as an effect of warfarin-induced inhibition of vitamin K-dependent protein activity .

Dr Schurgers continued, "Previous research by our group and others looking at OAC therapy in patients showed a significant increase in arterial calcification. The inactivation of the vitamin K-dependent protein matrix Gla-protein leads to impaired protection against arterial calcification. However, also in the apparently healthy population, some 40% impaired matrix Gla-protein is present. This would explain the Rotterdam study, showing that high intake of vitamin K2 reduced cardiovascular disease by some 50%. Clearly, given the role vitamin K plays in bone and cardiovascular health, we recommend increasing vitamin K intake from food and dietary supplements for all people. Individuals on OAC treatment should consult with their physician."

Numerous studies investigated the association between the impairment of vitamin K-dependent protein and excessive calcium accumulation in soft tissues. It was shown that calcification occurs more readily in cases where vitamin K recycling is inhibited. Indeed, though anticoagulants are usually instituted to avoid life-threatening cardiac diseases, the development of arterial calcification arises more readily in patients receiving such treatment. In men and women submitted to the OAC treatment, a two-fold increase in arterial calcification was found as compared to patients not receiving vitamin K-antagonists , . This is important since the survival rate was found to be associated with the amount of calcium present within the vasculature. Results published by Shaw et al. showed that significant calcification makes one older than the chronological age indicates; while an older person with little or no calcification can deduct up to 10 years from his or her actual age .

Several studies had previously suggested the strongly protective effect of vitamin K2 on vascular calcium deposition. The Rotterdam Study (Geleijnse et al., 2004) found high dietary intake of vitamin K2 contributing to heart health. Research conducted on a group of 4807 elderly men and women indicated that eating large quantities of natural vitamin K2 (the optimal dose was 45 µg per day) reduces the risk of both arterial calcification and cardiovascular mortality by 50%, with no side effects. Also the outcomes from a new study carried on by Beulens et al. supported the hypothesis of crucial role played by vitamin K2 (menaquinones) in the prevention of heart diseases: research discovered that high intakes of K2 were associated with decreased coronary calcification (meaning healthy and flexible vasculature).

MenaQ7 is the only dietary supplement providing the natural menaquinone-7 extracted from Japanese dish natto which at the dose of 45 µg will not likely interfere with "thinning" medicines, and does not provoke any additional risk of clot formation inside blood vessels.

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For more information please contact Egil Greve - Tel: +47 951 09 565

About MenaQ7
MenaQ7 provides Natural Vitamin K2 as an extract of natto, a fermented soy food from Japan. Natto is particularly rich in the highly bio-available form of vitamin K2, menaquinone-7 (MK-7). MenaQ7 is the best documented commercially available Natural Vitamin K2 with guaranteed actives and stability, clinical substantiation and international patents awarded and pending.

For more information on the health benefits of MenaQ7, please visit

About NattoPharma
NattoPharma, Norway is the exclusive international supplier of MenaQ7, the natural Vitamin K2. NattoPharma has entered into a multi-year research and development program to substantiate and discover the health benefits of natural vitamin K2 for applications in the exciting marketplace for functional food and health food supplements.

For more information, please visit our website

About PL Thomas
PL Thomas, a New Jersey-based ingredient supplier offers fifty years of innovation in securing reliable, high quality raw materials for the food/functional food and nutrition industries. PLT is a one-stop resource for application solutions, current industry information and technical service, and specializes in water-soluble gums and clinically-supported botanical extracts.

About Us

NattoPharma, the world leader in Vitamin K2 Research and Development, has invested millions of dollars in in-vitro, in-vivo, and clinical studies to document the effects of MenaQ7® Vitamin K2 as MK-7. This commitment has created the only patented and clinically validated K2 on the market. After establishing the first commercial Vitamin K2 with its flagship brand, MenaQ7®, NattoPharma has consistently answered and met market needs through the development of new production technologies:• In 2012, the company introduced MenaQ7® Crystals, which represented an important breakthrough in the new generation of Vitamin K2 products, producing the purest natural MK-7 available.• In 2014, NattoPharma introduced the only all-trans nature-identical synthesized Vitamin K2, MenaQ7® PURE. Not only did the company succeed in changing the market with MenaQ7® PURE – offering a high-quality, competitively priced ingredient – but its efforts were rewarded with the NutrAward for Best Functional Ingredient at Natural Products West/engredea 2015. Vitamin K2 is essential for the body to utilize calcium to build healthy, strong bones and to inhibit calcium deposits in the arteries. Published clinical studies have demonstrated the high bioavailability and proof of efficacy for Nattopharma’s all-trans MK-7 products in healthy and diseased populations, for bone and cardiovascular health. NattoPharma continues to build its competitive advantage through focuson IPR and has patents both granted and pending related to relevant healthbenefits and market segments, creating extra value for its customers. And NattoPharma staff consists of professionals people with longstanding experience in medical and biochemical research as well as pharmaceutical and food supplement development. By understanding and controlling the chemistry, NattoPharma provides the market all-trans MK-7 products, while our sales and marketing team has extensive knowledge of international market demands with which it supports our partners.


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