Towards increasingly personalised fracture risk assessment

In people over 50 years of age, fractures are so common that for example one in three women will suffer a wrist, ankle or hip fracture during their life. Low-energy fractures caused by bone weakening are one manifestation of osteoporosis. These fractures are painful and considerably weaken the patient's quality of life and, in the worst case scenario, can even lead to death.  

The current method for assessing the fracture risk is dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, which measures bone mineral density. However, reduced bone mineral density accounts for less than a third of all low-energy fractures, meaning that in a group of people with a similar reduction in bone mineral density, some suffer fractures and others don't. Moreover, these kinds of fracture risk assessments are generally performed only in specialist health care, which is expensive and requires that the patient has a referral to a specialist.  

Speed of sound is the “hole” story

Osteoporosis-induced thinning of the cortical bone layer can be detected in long bones, such as the shin bone, with the help of a pulse-echo ultrasound method, which is optimal for screening large populations. Cortical bone thickness measurements typically do not take site-specific speed of sound, which is dependent on cortical bone porosity, into consideration. However, there is variation in the micro-structure, mechanical properties and density of cortical bones between individuals, and this variation may affect speed of sound. In order for the method to be increasingly relevant in osteoporosis management, including treatment monitoring, the accuracy of bone thickness measurements could be improved by taking into consideration the effect of porosity variation on speed of sound.  

In his PhD thesis completed at the University of Eastern Finland, Chibuzor Eneh , MSc, successfully analysed cortical bone porosity from pulse-echo ultrasound backscatter using a multivariate method. Cortical bone porosity was then used to estimate subject-specific and site-specific speed of sound, allowing for an increasingly accurate estimate of cortical bone thickness. In addition to increasing the accuracy of thickness measurements, the method also provides information on cortical bone porosity, which is important because increased porosity is an early indication of cortical bone thinning.  

The ultrasound method developed in the PhD dissertation constitutes a step in the direction of an increasingly personalised and earlier assessment of fracture risk, which could be easily and cost-efficiently applied in osteoporosis diagnostics and follow-up in basic health care.

The findings were originally published in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America and Medical Physics.

The doctoral dissertation, entitled Pulse-Echo Ultrasound Assessment of Cortical Bone Thickness and Porosity, is available for download at:

For further information, please contact:
Early Stage Researcher Chibuzor Eneh, tel. +358 50 573 4274,  


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The University of Eastern Finland, UEF, is one of the largest universities in Finland. The activities of the UEF underscore multidisciplinarity, and the university is especially strong in research related to forests and the environment, health and well-being, and new technologies and materials. The UEF offers teaching in more than 100 major subjects. In addition to the high standard of teaching, the university offers its students a modern study environment, which is under constant development. The university comprises four faculties: the Philosophical Faculty, the Faculty of Science and Forestry, the Faculty of Health Sciences, and the Faculty of Social Sciences and Business Studies. The university’s campuses are located in the heart of beautiful eastern Finland in Joensuu, Kuopio and Savonlinna. The UEF is home to approximately 15 000 students and nearly 2 800 members of staff.


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