The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. As described in Alfred Nobel’s will, the Prize is dedicated to “the person who shall have made the most important discovery within the domain of physiology or medicine”. Nominations are invited from scientists around the world and evaluated by the Medical Nobel Committee, which identifies the leading candidates. The Nobel Assembly makes the final decision by vote, usually on the first Monday in October. The Prize is awarded for discovery, i.e. it is not a lifetime achievement award. Up to 3 individuals can share a Nobel Prize. It is not awarded posthumously.